Chapter 12

Some compiler implementations support compiler pragmas, which are used to give additional instructions or hints to the compiler, but which do not form part of the Haskell language proper and do not change a program’s semantics. This chapter summarizes this existing practice. An implementation is not required to respect any pragma, although pragmas that are not recognised by the implementation should be ignored. Implementations are strongly encouraged to support the LANGUAGE pragma described below as there are many language extensions being used in practice.

Lexically, pragmas appear as comments, except that the enclosing syntax is {-##-}.

12.1 インライン展開

decl {-# INLINE qvars #-}
decl {-# NOINLINE qvars #-}

The INLINE pragma instructs the compiler to inline the specified variables at their use sites. Compilers will often automatically inline simple expressions. This may be prevented by the NOINLINE pragma.

12.2 特殊化

decl {-# SPECIALIZE spec1 ,  , speck #-}     (k 1)
spec vars  ::  type

特殊化 is used to avoid inefficiencies involved in dispatching overloaded functions. For example, in

factorial :: Num a => a -> a  
factorial 0 = 0  
factorial n = n ⋆ factorial (n-1)  
{-# SPECIALIZE factorial :: Int -> Int,  
               factorial :: Integer -> Integer #-}

calls to factorial in which the compiler can detect that the parameter is either Int or Integer will use specialized versions of factorial which do not involve overloaded numeric operations.

12.3 言語拡張

The LANGUAGE pragma is a file-header pragma. A file-header pragma must precede the module keyword in a source file. There can be as many file-header pragmas as you please, and they can be preceded or followed by comments. An individual language pragma begins with the keyword LANGUAGE and is followed by a comma-separated list of named language features.

For example, to enable scoped type variables and preprocessing with CPP, if your Haskell implementation supports these extensions:

{-# LANGUAGE ScopedTypeVariables, CPP #-}

If a Haskell implementation does not recognize or support a particular language feature that a source file requests (or cannot support the combination of language features requested), any attempt to compile or otherwise use that file with that Haskell implementation must fail with an error.

In the interests of portability, multiple attempts to enable the same, supported language features (e.g. via command-line arguments, implementation-specific features dependencies or non-standard pragmas) are specifically permitted. Haskell 2010 implementations that support the LANGUAGE pragma are required to support

{-# LANGUAGE Haskell2010 #-}

Those implementations are also encouraged to support the following named language features:

PatternGuards, NoNPlusKパターン, RelaxedPolyRec,  
EmptyDataDecls, ForeignFunctionInterface

These are the named language extensions supported by some pre-Haskell 2010 implementations, that have been integrated into this report.